Embedded Photo Metadata#

Photos produced by Parrot drones embed both standard and custom metadata, including image capture and drone flight metadata, synchronized with the picture acquisition time, both in JPEG and DNG (raw) formats.

As in most photo files, the metadata use the Exchangeable image file format (Exif) version 2.31 and the ISO 16684-1 Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) standards. Some of the tags are standard, others are comonly used by multiple camera manufacturers and some are custom Parrot tags (only in XMP).

To read the metadata in both JPEG and DNG photo files, standard tools such as the exiv2 library and tools can be used. After installing the exiv2 package on your system, the metadata can be listed using the following command:

$ exiv2 -pa file.jpg

The following tables list the available metadata for various drone models.

Any additional metadata present and not supported by the application must be ignored. Some of these elements may not be present in a file. For example, the location may be unknown.

EXIF metadata#

Legend:

ANA-AI: Anafi Ai
J: JPEG files
D: DNG files

Tag

Key

Type

ANA-AI

Value

TIFF IFD

0x00FE

Exif.Image.NewSubfileType

LONG

D

Type of JPEG preview image (constant: 1)

0x0100

Exif.Image.ImageWidth

LONG

D

Width of JPEG preview in pixels (constant: 640)

0x0101

Exif.Image.ImageLength

LONG

D

Height of JPEG preview in pixels (constant: 480)

0x010E

Exif.Image.ImageDescription

ASCII

J

Picture date and time (e.g. “Wed, 20 Oct 2021 15:46:02 +0200”), or a custom title set by the application

0x0102

Exif.Image.BitsPerSample

SHORT

D

Bits per sample for the JPEG preview (constant: 8)

0x0103

Exif.Image.Compression

SHORT

D

Compression ID for JPEG preview (constant: 7 i.e. JPEG)

0x0106

Exif.Image.PhotometricInterpretation

SHORT

D

Interpretation of the JPEG preview (constant: 6 i.e. YCbCr)

0x010F

Exif.Image.Make

ASCII

J, D

Manufacturer (constant: “Parrot”)

0x0110

Exif.Image.Model

ASCII

J, D

Model name (e.g. “ANAFI Ai”)

0x0111

Exif.Image.StripOffsets

LONG

D

Ignored

0x0112

Exif.Image.Orientation

SHORT

J, D

Image Orientation (constant: 1 i.e. horizontal)

0x011A

Exif.Image.XResolution

RATIONAL

J

Pixels per inches in the X direction for print (constant: 72.0)

0x011B

Exif.Image.YResolution

RATIONAL

J

Pixels per inches in the Y direction for print (constant: 72.0)

0x0128

Exif.Image.ResolutionUnit

SHORT

J

Resolution unit (constant: 2 i.e. inches)

0x0115

Exif.Image.SamplesPerPixel

SHORT

D

Samples per pixel of the JPEG preview (constant: 3 i.e. Y,U,V)

0x0116

Exif.Image.RowsPerStrip

LONG

D

Ignored

0x0117

Exif.Image.StripByteCounts

LONG

D

Ignored

0x011C

Exif.Image.PlanarConfiguration

SHORT

D

Ignored

0x0131

Exif.Image.Software

ASCII

J, D

Full drone software version (software build identifier) (e.g. “anafi2-classic-7.0.0”)

0x0132

Exif.Image.DateTime

ASCII

J, D

UTC date and time of the capture (e.g. “2021:10:22 11:30:09”)

0x014A

Exif.Image.SubIFDs

LONG

D

Ignored

0x0211

Exif.Image.YCbCrCoefficients

RATIONAL

D

Coefficients for conversion from RGB to YCbCr in the JPEG preview (constant: 0.299 0.587 0.114)

0x0212

Exif.Image.YCbCrSubSampling

SHORT

D

YCbCr subsampling for the JPEG preview image (constant: 2 1 i.e. 4:2:2)

0x0213

Exif.Image.YCbCrPositioning

SHORT

J, D

The position of chrominance components in relation to luminance components for pixels (constant: 1 for DNG i.e. co-sited, 2 for JPEG i.e. centered)

0x0214

Exif.Image.ReferenceBlackWhite

RATIONAL

D

Reference black point and white point values (constant: 0.0 255.0 128.0 255.0 128.0 255.0)

0x02BC

Exif.Image.XMLPacket

BYTE

D

Ignored

0x8769

Exif.Image.ExifTag

LONG

J, D

Offset in bytes of the Exif IFD

0x8825

Exif.Image.GPSTag

LONG

J, D

Offset in bytes of the GPS info IFD

0xC612

Exif.Image.DNGVersion

BYTE

D

DNG version (constant: 1 4 0 0)

0xC613

Exif.Image.DNGBackwardVersion

BYTE

D

DNG backward version (constant: 1 3 0 0)

0xC614

Exif.Image.UniqueCameraModel

ASCII

D

Camera model name (e.g. “Parrot ANAFI Ai”)

0xC621

Exif.Image.ColorMatrix1

SRATIONAL

D

Transformation matrix that converts XYZ values to reference camera native color space values under the first calibration illuminant (constant: 0.8018 -0.2094 -0.0504 -0.2864 1.1027 0.2102 -0.003 0.1953 0.5487)

0xC627

Exif.Image.AnalogBalance

RATIONAL

D

White balance gains already applied to raw values (constant: 1.0 1.0 1.0)

0xC628

Exif.Image.AsShotNeutral

RATIONAL

D

White balance selected at time of capture, encoded as the coordinates of a perfectly neutral color in linear reference space values (e.g. 0.558952 1.0 0.567627)

0xC62A

Exif.Image.BaselineExposure

SRATIONAL

D

Baseline exposure of the camera (constant: 0.0)

0xC62B

Exif.Image.BaselineNoise

RATIONAL

D

Baseline camera noise level at ISO 100 (constant: 1.0)

0xC62C

Exif.Image.BaselineSharpness

RATIONAL

D

Baseline camera sharpness (constant: 1.0)

0xC62E

Exif.Image.LinearResponseLimit

RATIONAL

D

Fraction of the encoding range before non-linearity occurs (constant: 1.0)

0xC633

Exif.Image.ShadowScale

RATIONAL

D

Adobe-specific data for shadows slider sensitivity (constant: 1.0)

0xC65A

Exif.Image.CalibrationIlluminant1

SHORT

D

Illuminant used for color matrix calibration (constant: 21 i.e. D65)

0xC65D

Exif.Image.RawDataUniqueID

BYTE

D

Ignored

0xC6F8

Exif.Image.ProfileName

ASCII

D

The camera profile name (constant: “Embedded”)

0xC6FD

Exif.Image.ProfileEmbedPolicy

LONG

D

The camera profile embed policy (constant: 0)

SubImage1

Exif.SubImage1.NewSubfileType

LONG

D

Type of full-resolution image (constant: 0)

Exif.SubImage1.ImageWidth

LONG

D

Image width in pixels (e.g. 8000)

Exif.SubImage1.ImageLength

LONG

D

Image height in pixels (e.g. 6000)

Exif.SubImage1.BitsPerSample

SHORT

D

Number of bits per sample (constant: 16)

Exif.SubImage1.Compression

SHORT

D

Compression applied to raw values (constant: 1 i.e. uncompressed)

Exif.SubImage1.PhotometricInterpretation

SHORT

D

The photometric interpretation for raw values (constant: 32803 i.e. Color Filter Array)

Exif.SubImage1.StripOffsets

LONG

D

Ignored

Exif.SubImage1.SamplesPerPixel

SHORT

D

Raw samples per pixel (constant: 1)

Exif.SubImage1.RowsPerStrip

LONG

D

Ignored

Exif.SubImage1.StripByteCounts

LONG

D

Ignored

Exif.SubImage1.PlanarConfiguration

SHORT

D

Ignored

Exif.SubImage1.CFARepeatPatternDim

SHORT

D

X and Y dimensions of the CFA pattern (constant: 2 2)

Exif.SubImage1.CFAPattern

BYTE

D

CFA pattern (constant: 0 1 1 2 i.e. RGGB)

Exif.SubImage1.CFAPlaneColor

BYTE

D

Ignored

Exif.SubImage1.CFALayout

SHORT

D

CFA layout (constant: 1 i.e. rectangular)

Exif.SubImage1.BlackLevelRepeatDim

SHORT

D

X and Y dimensions of the black level data (constant: 2 2)

Exif.SubImage1.BlackLevel

RATIONAL

D

Zero light encoding level for the CFA pattern (e.g. 4032.0 4032.0 4032.0 4032.0 for Anafi Ai)

Exif.SubImage1.WhiteLevel

SHORT

D

Fully saturated encoding level (e.g. 65472 for Anafi Ai)

Exif.SubImage1.DefaultScale

RATIONAL

D

Pixel spatial scale (constant: 1.0 1.0)

Exif.SubImage1.DefaultCropOrigin

RATIONAL

D

Crop origin for valid raw pixels (constant: 0.0 0.0)

Exif.SubImage1.DefaultCropSize

RATIONAL

D

Crop size for valid raw pixels (e.g. 8000.0 6000.0)

Exif.SubImage1.BayerGreenSplit

LONG

D

Divergence between green pixels (constant: 0 i.e. none)

Exif.SubImage1.AntiAliasStrength

RATIONAL

D

Camera anti-aliasing quality (constant: 1.0 i.e. strong)

Exif.SubImage1.BestQualityScale

RATIONAL

D

Best quality scale factor (constant: 1.0)

Exif.SubImage1.OpcodeList2

UNDEF

D

The list of DNG opcodes to apply to linear values; this contains for example vignetting correction maps

EXIF IFD

0x829A

Exif.Photo.ExposureTime

RATIONAL

J, D

Exposure time in seconds (e.g. 1/480 s)

0x829D

Exif.Photo.FNumber

RATIONAL

J, D

F-Number (constant: f/2.0)

0x8822

Exif.Photo.ExposureProgram

SHORT

J, D

Program used by the camera to set the exposure (e.g. “Auto”)

0x8827

Exif.Photo.ISOSpeedRatings

SHORT

J, D

ISO Speed and ISO Latitude as specified in ISO 12232 (e.g. 60)

0x8830

Exif.Photo.SensitivityType

SHORT

J, D

Sensitivity type (constant: 3 “ISO Speed”)

0x8833

Exif.Photo.ISOSpeed

LONG

J

ISO speed value (e.g. 60)

0x9000

Exif.Photo.ExifVersion

UNDEF

J, D

The version of the supported Exif standard (constant: “0231” i.e. version 2.31)

0x9003

Exif.Photo.DateTimeOriginal

ASCII

J, D

UTC date and time of the capture (e.g. “2021:10:22 11:30:09”)

0x9004

Exif.Photo.DateTimeDigitized

ASCII

J, D

UTC date and time of the capture (e.g. “2021:10:22 11:30:09”)

0x9101

Exif.Photo.ComponentsConfiguration

UNDEF

J

Compressed data channels (constant: “1230” i.e. YCbCr)

0x9201

Exif.Photo.ShutterSpeedValue

SRATIONAL

J, D

Shutter speed; the unit is the APEX setting (e.g. 1/443 s)

0x9202

Exif.Photo.ApertureValue

RATIONAL

J, D

Lens aperture; the unit is the APEX value (constant: f/2.0)

0x9204

Exif.Photo.ExposureBiasValue

SRATIONAL

J, D

Exposure bias; the unit is the APEX value (e.g. -11072963/33554432 EV)

0x9207

Exif.Photo.MeteringMode

SHORT

J, D

Metering mode of the exposure program (constant: 2 i.e. center weighted average)

0x9208

Exif.Photo.LightSource

SHORT

J, D

The kind of light source (constant: “Unknown”)

0x9209

Exif.Photo.Flash

SHORT

J

Status of the flash when the image was shot (constant: 0 i.e. no flash)

0x920A

Exif.Photo.FocalLength

RATIONAL

J, D

The actual focal length of the lens in millimeters (e.g. 5.3 mm)

0x9290

Exif.Photo.SubSecTime

ASCII

J

Milliseconds of the time of the capture

0x9291

Exif.Photo.SubSecTimeOriginal

ASCII

J

Milliseconds of the time of the capture

0x9292

Exif.Photo.SubSecTimeDigitized

ASCII

J

Milliseconds of the time of the capture

0xA000

Exif.Photo.FlashpixVersion

UNDEF

J

Ignored (constant: “0100”)

0xA001

Exif.Photo.ColorSpace

SHORT

J

Image color space (constant: 1 i.e. sRGB)

0xA002

Exif.Photo.PixelXDimension

SHORT

J

Valid width of the meaningful compressed image (e.g. 4000)

0xA003

Exif.Photo.PixelYDimension

SHORT

J

Valid height of the meaningful compressed image (e.g. 3000)

0xA20E

Exif.Photo.FocalPlaneXResolution

RATIONAL

J

Number of pixels in the image width (X) direction per FocalPlaneResolutionUnit (cm) on the camera focal plane (e.g. 6003.2)

0xA20F

Exif.Photo.FocalPlaneYResolution

RATIONAL

J

Number of pixels in the image height (Y) direction per FocalPlaneResolutionUnit (cm) on the camera focal plane (e.g. 6003.2)

0xA210

Exif.Photo.FocalPlaneResolutionUnit

SHORT

J

Unit for measuring FocalPlaneXResolution and FocalPlaneYResolution (constant: 3 i.e. centimeters)

0xA300

Exif.Photo.FileSource

UNDEF

J, D

Image file source (constant: 3 i.e. digital still camera)

0xA301

Exif.Photo.SceneType

SHORT

J, D

Type of scene (constant: 1 i.e. directly photographed)

0xA402

Exif.Photo.ExposureMode

SHORT

J, D

Current exposure mode (manual, auto or bracketing)

0xA403

Exif.Photo.WhiteBalance

SHORT

J, D

Current white balance mode (manual or auto)

0xA405

Exif.Photo.FocalLengthIn35mmFilm

SHORT

J, D

Equivalent focal length in millimeters assuming a 35mm film camera (e.g.: 28.0 mm)

0xA406

Exif.Photo.SceneCaptureType

SHORT

J

Type of scene that was shot (constant: 0 i.e. standard)

0xA408

Exif.Photo.Contrast

SHORT

J

Contrast processing applied by the camera (constant: normal)

0xA409

Exif.Photo.Saturation

SHORT

J

Saturation processing applied by the camera (constant: normal)

0xA40A

Exif.Photo.Sharpness

SHORT

J

Sharpness processing applied by the camera (constant: normal)

0xA431

Exif.Photo.BodySerialNumber

ASCII

J, D

Drone serial number (e.g. “PI040416BA8G059745”)

GPS IFD

0x0000

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSVersionID

BYTE[4]

J, D

Version of the GPS IFD (constant: ‘2’,’3’,’0’,’0’)

0x0001

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSLatitudeRef

ASCII

J, D

Indicates whether the latitude is north or south latitude (constant: “N” or “S”)

0x0002

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSLatitude

RATIONAL

J, D

Latitude in units of degrees

0x0003

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSLongitudeRef

ASCII

J, D

Indicates whether the longitude is east or west longitude (constant: “E” or “W”)

0x0004

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSLongitude

RATIONAL

J, D

Longitude in units of degrees

0x0005

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSAltitudeRef

BYTE

J, D

Indicates the altitude reference (0 means above sea level, 1 means below sea level)

0x0006

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSAltitude

RATIONAL

J, D

Altitude in units of meters

0x0008

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSSatellites

ASCII

J, D

GPS satellites count used for measurements

0x0012

Exif.GPSInfo.GPSMapDatum

ASCII

J, D

Geodetic survey data used by the GPS receiver (constant: “WGS-84”)

Thumbnail IFD

0x0103

Exif.Thumbnail.Compression

SHORT

J

Constant: 6 (compressed)

0x011a

Exif.Thumbnail.XResolution

RATIONAL

J

Constant: 72.0

0x011b

Exif.Thumbnail.YResolution

RATIONAL

J

Constant: 72.0

0x0128

Exif.Thumbnail.ResolutionUnit

SHORT

J

Constant: 2

0x0201

Exif.Thumbnail.JPEGInterchangeFormat

LONG

J

Offset in bytes to the start of the thumbnail image data

0x0202

Exif.Thumbnail.JPEGInterchangeFormatLength

LONG

J

Size in bytes of the thumbnail image data

XMP Metadata#

Legend:

ANA-AI: Anafi Ai
J: JPEG files
D: DNG files

Key

ANA-AI

Value

XMP schema

Xmp.xmp.CreatorTool

D

Drone software version (e.g. “7.0.0”)

Xmp.xmp.ModifyDate

J, D

UTC date and time of the capture, ISO 8601 date format (e.g. “2021-10-22T11:30:09+02:00”)

Xmp.xmp.CreateDate

J, D

UTC date and time of the capture, ISO 8601 date format (e.g. “2021-10-22T11:30:09+02:00”)

Dublin core schema

Xmp.dc.date

J

UTC date and time of the capture, ISO 8601 date format (e.g. “2021-10-22T11:30:09+02:00”)

Xmp.dc.format

J, D

“image/jpeg” or “image/dng”

Xmp.dc.description

J

Picture date and time (e.g. ‘lang=”x-default” Wed, 20 Oct 2021 15:46:02 +0200’) or a custom title set by the application

Photoshop schema

Xmp.photoshop.DateCreated

D

UTC date and time of the capture, ISO 8601 date format (e.g. “2021-10-22T11:30:09+02:00”)

TIFF schema

Xmp.tiff.Copyright

J

Optional copyright (e.g. “Copyright (c) 2021 Parrot Drones SAS”)

Xmp.tiff.Make

J

Manufacturer (constant: “Parrot”)

Xmp.tiff.Model

J

Model name (e.g. “ANAFI Ai”)

Xmp.tiff.Software

J

Full drone software version (software build identifier) (e.g. “anafi2-classic-7.0.0”)

Xmp.tiff.Orientation

J

Constant: “top, left”

Xmp.tiff.YCbCrPositioning

J

Constant: “Centered”

EXIF schema

Xmp.exif.GPSLatitude

J

Location latitude in degrees, minutes followed by a letter giving the reference (N=north, S=south) (e.g. “48,21.1367729995753N”)

Xmp.exif.GPSLongitude

J

Location longitude in degrees, minutes followed by a letter giving the reference (E=east, W=west) (e.g. “2,49.15540455031244E”)

Xmp.exif.GPSAltitude

J

Location altitude in meters expressed as a fraction (e.g. “4971569/65536”)

Xmp.exif.GPSAltitudeRef

J

Location altitude reference (e.g. “Above sea level”)

Xmp.exif.ExposureTime

J

Exposure time in seconds expressed as a fraction (e.g. “3747359/1073741824”)

Xmp.exif.ISOSpeedRatings

J

ISO sensitivity (e.g. “60”)

Xmp.exif.ExposureBiasValue

J

Exposure bias expressed as a fraction (e.g. “-11072963/33554432 EV”)

Xmp.exif.DateTimeOriginal

J

UTC date and time of the capture, ISO 8601 date format (e.g. “2021-10-22T11:30:09.205000+02:00”)

Camera schema

Xmp.Camera.GPSXYAccuracy

J, D

Accuracy (one sigma of the gaussian distribution) of the horizontal location of the GPS, in meters, expressed as a fraction (e.g. “845389/2097152”)

Xmp.Camera.GPSZAccuracy

J, D

Accuracy (one sigma of the gaussian distribution) of the vertical location of the GPS, in meters, expressed as a fraction (e.g. “5117051/8388608”)

Xmp.Camera.ModelType

J, D

Type of camera model, can be either “perspective” or “fisheye”

Xmp.Camera.PrincipalPoint

J, D

Position of the principal point in millimeters; the origin is at the top/left corner, x is positive towards the right, y is positive towards the bottom (e.g. “3.24425673,2.43319273”)

Xmp.Camera.PerspectiveDistortion

J

If a perspective model is used, the distortion coefficients R1, R2, R3, T1, T2, as documented in https://support.pix4d.com/hc/en-us/articles/202559089 (e.g. “0.00000000,0.00000000,0.00000000,0.00000000,0.00000000”)

Xmp.Camera.PerspectiveFocalLength

J

If a perspective model is used, the focal length of the lens in units of PerspectiveFocalLengthUnits, expressed as a fraction (e.g. “527/100”)

Xmp.Camera.PerspectiveFocalLengthUnits

J

If a perspective model is used, the units of PerspectiveFocalLength (e.g. “mm”)

Xmp.Camera.FisheyeAffineMatrix

J, D

If a fisheye model is used, the affine matrix C, D, E, F as documented in https://support.pix4d.com/hc/en-us/articles/202559089 (e.g. “10858.09570312,0.00000000,0.00000000,10858.09570312”)

Xmp.Camera.FisheyeAffineSymmetric

J, D

If a fisheye model is used, either “1” if the matrix is affine symmetric, or “0” otherwise

Xmp.Camera.FisheyePolynomial

J, D

If fisheye model is used, the polynomial coefficients p0, p1, p2, p3, p4 defined in https://support.pix4d.com/hc/en-us/articles/202559089 (e.g. “0,1,0.15420000,-0.77260000,0.24070001”)

Xmp.Camera.Roll

J, D

Roll orientation of the camera, in degrees, following the convention defined in https://support.pix4d.com/hc/en-us/articles/202558969 (e.g. “-0.041258”)

Xmp.Camera.Pitch

J, D

Pitch orientation of the camera, in degrees, following the convention defined in https://support.pix4d.com/hc/en-us/articles/202558969 (e.g. “38.011101”)

Xmp.Camera.Yaw

J, D

Yaw orientation of the camera, in degrees, following the convention defined in https://support.pix4d.com/hc/en-us/articles/202558969 (e.g. “146.781036”)

Xmp.Camera.AboveGroundAltitude

J, D

Altitude above the ground in meters expressed as a fraction (e.g. “11485529/262144”)

Xmp.Camera.FlightUUID

J, D

Flight unique identifier (e.g. “E424837D31F3240CFB94681E1D293DE3”)

Parrot Drone schema

Xmp.drone-parrot.CameraRollDegree

J, D

Roll orientation of the camera, in degrees, in NED (north/east/down) coordinate system (e.g. “-0.052789”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.CameraPitchDegree

J, D

Pitch orientation of the camera, in degrees, in NED (north/east/down) coordinate system (e.g. “-51.988888”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.CameraYawDegree

J, D

Yaw orientation of the camera, in degrees, in NED (north/east/down) coordinate system (e.g. “146.848038”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.ModelId

J, D

Model identifier of the drone (e.g. “091a”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.SerialNumber

J, D

Drone serial number (e.g. “PI040416BA8G059745”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.SoftwareVersion

J, D

Drone software version (e.g. “7.0.0”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.SoftwareBuildId

J, D

Full drone software version (software build identifier) (e.g. “anafi2-classic-7.0.0”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.UtcTsAccuracy

J, D

Accuracy of the UTC timestamp in nanoseconds (e.g. “26”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.SecureCn

J, D

Common name of the drone certificate used to sign the picture file (e.g. “12EF5.drones.parrotdrones.com”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.BootDate

J, D

UTC date and time of the drone boot, ISO 8601 date format (e.g. “2022-03-25T15:07:39+00:00”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.BootId

J, D

Drone boot identifier (e.g. “E424837D31F3240CFB94681E1D293DE3”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.CustomId

J, D

Optional application-defined custom identifier (e.g. “aa185b76-659e-432b-8e41-0c20ac2c9ba7_1615363595488”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.FlightDate

J, D

UTC date and time of the flight, ISO 8601 date format (e.g. “2022-03-25T15:07:39+00:00”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.PhotoMode

J, D

Mode in which the picture was captured (e.g. “GPSLapse”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.PanoramaType

J, D

If the photo is part of a panorama, the panorama type for which the photo was captured (e.g. “super-wide”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.SequenceNumber

J, D

In case of grouped photos, the sequence number of the photo (e.g. “0”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.PhotoCount

J, D

In case of grouped photos, the total number of photos (e.g. “9”)

Xmp.drone-parrot.CaptureTsUs

J, D

Accurate frame capture timestamp in microseconds on the drone monotonic clock since an unspecified starting point (e.g. “733975882”)